Index

Space
Launchers

Suborbital
Vehicles

Rocket
Ranges

Français


Adapted from The Satellite Encyclopedia.

Launchers Ariane 1 - 4


After the failure of the Europa 1/2 program, the ELDO was to design a totally new Europa 3. This launcher was to have a first stage L150 with storable propellant powered by 4 Viking motors from SEP and a second cryogenic stage H20 equipped with a high pressure HM-20 motor from Cryorocket. This project was found too risky both technically and financially especially by Germany, which wanted to focus on the Spacelab development.

In 1972 the CNES proposed to build a launcher with the same performance but using only European tested technology like the low-pressure cryogenic propulsion. This project designed L-IIIS (substitution third generation launcher) was to use an H6 cryogenic top stage with a HM-4 motor designed by SEP. The poor performance of the H6 compared to the H20 required the use of two base stages, on L140 (reduced version of the Europa 3 L150) and an L33 (featuring a single Viking motor adapted to altitude use).

In December 1972 the 5th European Space Conference ended on 3 agreements: creation of a European Space Agency (ESA to replace both ELDO and ESRO) and the start of the L-IIIS and Spacelab.
The following year the L-IIIS project was further defined (increased propellant of the H6 to become H8 and replacement of the 4-chamber HM-4 by a single-nozzle HM-7) and changed denomination: Ariane. The CNES granted Aerospatiale as the industrial architect of the project.

Ariane 1

The first Ariane version was a 208-ton launcher (without payload) of 47.4 m high. The first stage (L140) was 3.8 m diameter, 18.4 m high, containing 147.6 tons propellant (NTO + UDMH). It was powered by a set of 4 Viking 5 motors which fired during 146 seconds, providing 2485 kN thrust at takeoff (Isp = 247 s) and 2770 kN in vacuum (Isp = 278 s). The second stage (L33) was 2.6 m diameter for 11.6 m high. It was loaded with 34.2 tons propellant identical to first stage. It's Viking 4 motor provided 723 kN thrust (Isp = 296 s) during 138 seconds. The top stage (H8) of same diameter was 9.1 m high. It's cryogenic motor HM-7 developed 61.3 kN thrust (Isp = 441 s) and consumed 8.2 tons liquid oxygen and hydrogen in 545 seconds. The first and third stages were assembled in France by Aerospatiale, the second stage in Germany by ERNO. Ariane was optimized for launches in GTO to which it could deliver 1750 kg.

Ariane 2 & 3

As soon as 1977 the CNES started enhancing the performance of the launcher. The first derivatives named Ariane 2 & 3 had the following characteristics:
- On the two first stages: enhancement of the thrust of the Viking 4 and 5 by increasing the pressure of the combustion chamber and replacement of UDMH by UH25 (75% UDMH and 25% hydrazine hydrate). The combustion duration where then respectively 135 and 123 seconds.
- On the third stage: lengthening by 1.3 m of the tanks (10.7 tons propellant on this new H10) and increased specific impulsion of the motor (HM-7B). The combustion duration was then 720 s.
- Extension of the payload volume.
The Ariane 3 version had also two additional solid booster: 8 m high, 1.07 m diameter, 9.7 tons (including 7.3 tons solid propellant: Flexadyne). Each booster provided 666 kN thrust during 28 s. They were manufactured by BPD in Italy.

The two launchers were 48.7 high. Ariane 2 weighed 212 tons at takeoff while Ariane 3 weighed 230 tons. The payload weights then reached 2065 kg and 2580 kg in GTO.

Ariane 4

The construction of a series of launchers named Ariane 4 with enhanced performance was decided in 1981. Those launchers are directly derived from the previous version, retaining the 3 stages and lengthening the first one and addition solid and/or liquid boosters.
The first stage of Ariane 4 named L220 is 23.2 m high. It transports 227 tons propellant identical to Ariane 2/3. It is still powered by a set of Viking 5 motors (version C) which provide during 205 seconds 2710 kN thrust at takeoff (3010 kN in vacuum, Isp = 278 s). The two other stages are those of Ariane 2/3 with a reinforced structure. The 3rd stage has been lengthened twice giving the H10+ (11 tons propellant) and H10-3 (11.8 tons propellant) versions. The latter burns during 13 minutes.

The flexibility of Ariane 4 is due to the adaptation of the payload by addition of boosters on the first stage. Those are of 2 types: PAP (solid) and PAL (liquid). The PAPs are an enhancement of the Ariane 3 boosters. They are 12 m high, weigh 12.6 tons (including 9.5 tons powder) and provide 650 kN thrust (Isp = 224 s) during 36 seconds. The PALs are built by MBB/ERNO. They are 19 m high, 2.2 m diameter, weigh 43.5 tons (39 tons of the same propellant as the first stage). Their Viking 6 motor fires during 143 seconds and provides 678 kN at ground level, 752 kN in vacuum.

The possible configurations are:
- Ariane 40: no boosters
- Ariane 42: 2 boosters, 42P with 2 PAP and 42L with 2 PAL
- Ariane 44: 4 boosters, 44P with 4 PAP, 44L with 4 PAL, 44LP with 2 PAP and 2 PAL

The launcher's height ranges from 54.1 m to 58.4 m depending on the cap used. Its mass ranges from 243 tons (Ariane 40) to 480 tons (Ariane 44L) and the GTO performance from 2020 kg to 4460 kg. Ariane 4 should remain in active service until the end of the century.

Tables
a/ Engine performances
b/ Ariane launches


Ariane 1-4
Scale in meters

a/ Engine performances

Ariane4 Viking 5Viking 4HM7
TypeFirst launchVer.Thrust
(kN)
SI
(sec)
Ver.Thrust
(kN)
SI
(sec)
Ver.Thrust
(kN)
SI
(sec)
11979A2485 s/2770 v247 s/278 vA723296 61.3441
2/31984B2690 s/2980 v B785296B62.8445
41988C2710 s/3010 v ------

Notes: (s) sea level; (v) in vacuum

b/ Ariane launches

#Launch idPayloadLaunch DateTypeStatus/Comment
179104 CAT24 Dec 19791 Transfert
2n/a Firewheel
Oscar-9
23 May 19801 Failure
381057 Meteosat-2
APPLE
19 Jun 19811 Geosynchronous
481122 MarECS-119 Dec 19811 Geosynchronous
5n/a MarECS-2
Sirio-2
10 Sep 19821 Failure
683058 ECS-1
Oscar-10
16 Jun 19831 Geosynchronous
783105 Intelsat-V F719 Oct 19831 Geosynchronous
884023 Intelsat-V F805 Mar 19841 Geosynchronous
984049 Spacenet-123 May 19841 Geosynchronous
1084081 ECS-2
Telecom-1A
04 Aug 19843 Geosynchronous
1184114 MarECS-B2
Spacenet-2
09 Nov 19843 Geosynchronous
1285015 Arabsat-1A
SBTS-1
08 Feb 19853 Geosynchronous
1385035 GStar-1A
Telecom-1B
08 May 19853 Geosynchronous
1485056 Giotto02 Jul 19851Halley probe
15n/a ECS-3
Spacenet-3
12 Sep 19853 Failure
1686019 SPOT-1
Viking
21 Feb 19861 825x825x98.7
1786026 GStar-2
BrazilSat-2
28 Mar 19863 Geosynchronous
18n/a Intelsat-VA F1431 May 19862 Failure
1987078 Aussat-K3
ECS-4
15 Sep 19873 Geosynchronous
2087095 TVSat-121 Nov 19872 Geosynchronous
2188018 Telecom-1C
Spacenet-3R
11 Mar 19883 Geosynchronous
2288040 Intelsat-VA F1317 May 19882 Geosynchronous
2388051 Meteosat-P2
PanAmSat-1
15 Jun 198844LP Geosynchronous
2488063 ECS-5
Insat-1C
21 Jul 19883 Geosynchronous
2588081 GStar-3
SBS-5
08 Sep 19883 Geosynchronous
2688089 TDF-128 Oct 19882 Geosynchronous
2788109 Astra-1A
Skynet-4B
10 Dec 198844LP Geosynchronous
2889006 Intelsat-VA F1526 Jan 19892 Geosynchronous
2989020 JCsat-1
Meteosat-4
06 Mar 198944LP Geosynchronous
3089027 Tele-X 01 Apr 19892 Geosynchronous
3189041 Superbird-A
Kopernikus-1
05 Jun 198944L Geosynchronous
3289053 Olympus-111 Jul 19893 Geosynchronous
3389062 TVSat-2
Hipparcos-1
08 Aug 198944L Geosynchronous
3489087 Intelsat-6 F227 Oct 198944L Geosynchronous
3590005 SPOT-2
UOSATs
µsats
21 Jan 199040 825x825x98.7
36n/a Superbird-B
BS-2X
22 Feb 199044L Failure
3790063 TDF-2
Kopernikus-2
24 Jul 199044L Geosynchronous
3890079 Eutelsat-2A
Skynet-4C
30 Aug 199044LP Geosynchronous
3990091 Galaxy-6
SBS-6
12 Oct 199044L Geosynchronous
4090100 Satcom-C1
GStar-4
20 Nov 199042P Geosynchronous
4191003 Eutelsat-2B
Italsat-1
15 Jan 199144L Geosynchronous
4291015 ASTRA-1B
Meteosat-5
02 Mar 199144LP Geosynchronous
4391026 Anik-E F204 Apr 199144P Geosynchronous
4491050 ERS-1
4 µsats
17 Jul 199140 780x780x98.5
4591055 Intelsat-6 F514 Aug 199144L Geosynchronous
4691067 Anik-E F126 Sep 199144P Geosynchronous
4791075 Intelsat-6 F129 Oct 199144L Geosynchronous
4891084 Telecom-2A
Inmarsat-2 F3
16 Dec 199144L Geosynchronous
4992010 Superbird-B1
Arabsat-1C
27 Feb 199244L Geosynchronous
5092021 Telecom-2B
Inmarsat-2 F4
15 Apr 199244L Geosynchronous
5192041 Eutelsat-2D
Insat-2A
09 Jul 199244L Geosynchronous
5292052 Topex
µsats
10 Aug 199242P 1330x1330x66.0
5392060 Hispasat-1A
Satcom-C3
10 Sep 199244LP Geosynchronous
5492071 Galaxy-727 Oct 199242P Geosynchronous
5592084 Superbird-A01 Dec 199242P Geosynchronous
5693031 Astra-1C
Arsene
12 May 199342L Geosynchronous
5793039 Galaxy-425 Jun 199342P Geosynchronous
5893048 Hispasat-1B
Insat-2B
23 Jul 199344L Geosynchronous
5993061 SPOT-3
Stella
µsats
25 Sep 199340 815x815x98.7
6093066 Intelsat-70122 Oct 199344LP Geosynchronous
6193073 Solidaridad-1
Meteosat-6
19 Nov 199344LP Geosynchronous
6293078 DirectTV-1
Thaicom-1
17 Dec 199344L Geosynchronous
63n/a Eutelsat-2 F5
Turksat-1A
25 Jan 199444LP Failure
6494034 Intelsat-702
µsats
17 Jun 199444LP Geosynchronous
6594040 Panamsat-2
BS-3N
08 Jul 199444L Geosynchronous
6694049 Brazilsat-B1
Turksat-1B
10 Aug 199444LP Geosynchronous
6794058 Telstar-40208 Sep 199442L Transfert
6894065 Solidaridad-2
Thaicom-2
08 Oct 199444L Geosynchronous
6994070 Astra-1D31 Oct 199442P Geosynchronous
70n/a Panamsat-301 Dec 199442P Failure
7195016 Brazilsat-B2
Eutelsat-2#6
29 Mar 199544LP Geosynchronous
7295021 ERS-220 Apr 199540 785x785x98.6
7395023 Intelsat-706a17 May 199544LP Geosynchronous
7495029 DirectTV-310 Jun 199542P Geosynchronous
7595033 Helios-1
µsats
10 Jul 199540 680x680x98.0
7695040 Panamsat-404 Aug 199542L Geosynchronous
7795044 N-Star-A29 Aug 199544P Geosynchronous
7895049 Telstar-402R23 Sep 199544P Geosynchronous
7995055 Astra-1E18 Oct 199542L Geosynchronous
8095062 ISO17 Nov 199544P 1000x70500x5.3
8195067 Telecom-2C
Insat-2C
07 Dec 199544L Geosynchronous
8296002 Panamsat-3R
Measat-1
13 Jan 199644L Geosynchronous
8396007 N-Star-B05 Feb 199644P Geosynchronous
8496015 Intelsat-707a14 Mar 199644LP Geosynchronous
8596022 MSAT-120 Apr 199642P Geosynchronous
8696030 Palapa-C2
Amos-1
15 May 199644L Geosynchronous
8796035 Intelsat-70915 Jun 199644LP Geosynchronous
8996040 Arabsat-2A
Turksat-1C
10 Jul 199644L Geosynchronous
9096044 Telecom-2D
Italsat-2
09 Aug 199644L Geosynchronous
9196055 Echostar-210 Sep 199642P Geosynchronous
9296063 Arabsat-2B
Measat-2
13 Nov 199644L Geosynchronous
9397002 GE-2
Nahuel-1A
30 Jan 199744L Geosynchronous
9497009 Intelsat-80101 Mar 199744P Geosynchronous
9597016 Thaicom-3
BSat-1A
16 Apr 199744LP Geosynchronous
9797027 Inmarsat-3F3
Insat-2D
04 Jun 199744L Geosynchronous
9697031 Intelsat-80225 Jun 199744P Geosynchronous
9897040 Panamsat-608 Aug 199744P Geosynchronous
9997049 Eutelsat HB-3
Meteosat-7
02 Sep 199744LP Geosynchronous
10097053 Intelsat-80323 Sep 199742L Geosynchronous
10297071 Sirius-2
Cakrawarta-1
12 Nov 199744L Geosynchronous
10397075 JCSat-5
Equator-S
02 Dec 199744P Geosynchronous
10497083 Intelsat 80422 Dec 199742L Geosynchronous
10598006 Brazilsat B3
Inmarsat 3
02 Feb 199844LP Geosynchronous
10698013 Eutelsat HB 427 Feb 199842P Geosynchronous
10798017 SPOT 424 Mar 199840 825x825x98.7
10898024 Nilesat 1
BSAT 1B
28 Apr 199844P Geosynchronous
10998049 ST 125 Aug 199844P Geosynchronous
11098052 PAS 716 Sep 199844LP Geosynchronous
11198056 Eutelsat W2
Sirius 3
05 Oct 199844L Geosynchronous
11398063 Afristar
GE 5
28 Oct 199844L Geosynchronous
11498070 Satmex 506 Dec 199842L Geosynchronous
11598075 PAS 6B22 Dec 199842L Geosynchronous
11699009 Arabsat 3A
Skynet 4E
26 Feb 199944L Geosynchronous
11799016 Insat 2E02 Apr 199942P Geosynchronous
11899042 Telkom12 Aug 199942P Geosynchronous
12099046 Mugunghwa 304 Sep 199942P Geosynchronous
12199052 Telstar 725 Sep 199944LP Geosynchronous
12299059 Orion 219 Oct 199944LP Geosynchronous
12399060 GE 413 Nov 199944LP Geosynchronous
12499064 Helios 1B
Clementine
03 Dec 199940 680x680x98.1
12599071 Galaxy 1122 Dec 199944L Geosynchronous
12600002 Galaxy 10R24 Jan 200042L Geosynchronous
12700012 Superbird 417 Feb 200044LP Geosynchronous
12900020 Galaxy 4R18 Apr 200042L Geosynchronous
13100046 Brazilsat B4
Nilesat 102
07 Aug 200044LP Geosynchronous
13200052 Eutelsat W106 Sep 200044P Geosynchronous
13300060 N-Sat 11006 Oct 200042L Geosynchronous
13400068 EuropeStar 129 Oct 200044LP Geosynchronous
13600076 Anik F121 Nov 200044L Geosynchronous



External resources
Arianespace, Launcher Family
Ariane 1 Ariane 4
Retrospective Ariane 4


Top
of the page

Space
Launchers

Suborbital
Vehicles

Rocket
Ranges

Français


Please contact Jean-Jacques Serra <JJ.Serra@wanadoo.fr> for comments, corrections or questions